Basic calculations of solar water heater pdf Blenheim

basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

DETAILED MODELING OF SOLAR FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. This work presents a reproducible parabolic trough solar water

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The Central Solar Water Heating Systems Design Guide. This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service., What is Solar Water Heating? • Solar Assist or Solar Pre-heat • Always keep the existing heater as Basic SWH Design- Step 2 2. Solar heated water is pumped into a storage tank . 7 7 Shade Factor= 98% solar availability Calculation: 125 therms x $12.82 x 1.0 X .98 = $1508 . 37 37 Natural Gas.

Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date – leave a space of approx. 100 mm. to the external side solar panels for the connections to the solar system. To calculate system’s load losses, see the here below diagram keeping in consideration what follows: pumping away from the hot water heater, towards the solar panel. Confirm the direction of pumping by observing the flow arrow

This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service. a more detailed solar thermal water heating system for one of the Upper Residence buildings as an alternative to the current steam system used for heating water during the summer months. The design should be made primarily for 50% full occupancy in order …

What is Solar Water Heating? • Solar Assist or Solar Pre-heat • Always keep the existing heater as Basic SWH Design- Step 2 2. Solar heated water is pumped into a storage tank . 7 7 Shade Factor= 98% solar availability Calculation: 125 therms x $12.82 x 1.0 X .98 = $1508 . 37 37 Natural Gas Training Manual for Engineers on Solar PV System TECHNICAL REPORT · JULY 2011 DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3156.9607 Fundamentals of solar photovoltaic technology 27 5.1 Basic Principles of Photo-Voltaic Effect 28 5.2 Solar Cells 33 Design aspects of water pumping schemes f) Load calculation g) Sizing of module/ array h) Sizing of storage battery

Training Manual for Engineers on Solar PV System TECHNICAL REPORT · JULY 2011 DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3156.9607 Fundamentals of solar photovoltaic technology 27 5.1 Basic Principles of Photo-Voltaic Effect 28 5.2 Solar Cells 33 Design aspects of water pumping schemes f) Load calculation g) Sizing of module/ array h) Sizing of storage battery consideration for the solar water heater to obtain hot water for the domestic and industrial applications. Solar energy is unconventional energy source at comparatively low cost and high capacity. Design of solar water heating system is important to assure maximum benefit to the users, especially for a …

Zig zag collector, manual on the construction of a solar water heater Page 5 1.3. Working principle of the solar hot water system When solar radiation heats the collector, the water inside will be heated as well. Design and Construction of a Solar Water Heater Based on the Thermosyphon Principle Nosa Andrew Ogie,1 Ikponmwosa Oghogho,2 and Julius Jesumirewhe3 1Mechanical Engineering Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B. 20, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria

What is Solar Water Heating? • Solar Assist or Solar Pre-heat • Always keep the existing heater as Basic SWH Design- Step 2 2. Solar heated water is pumped into a storage tank . 7 7 Shade Factor= 98% solar availability Calculation: 125 therms x $12.82 x 1.0 X .98 = $1508 . 37 37 Natural Gas Solar Water Heating Water heating accounts for 4.5 Quads/year of 37.6 Quads/year total US building energy use. Of this, about 1% (0.05 Quads/year) is currently supplied by solar. 3% of buildings have solar One third of each building load by solar . Gas, 72% Oil, 0% Propane, 3% . Electric, 23% Solar, 2%. Figure by Andy Walker with data from

This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service. Hot waterHot water for poolsfor pools Solar Water Heating (SWH - Solar Thermal) Hot water for domestic use (DHW) All courtesy of DOE/NREL. Solar Pool Heating Swimming pool water heatingSwimming pool water heating 80 - 85 degrees from May to October Standard Water Heaters Improved model: Same basic technology,

Design of a Solar Water Heater Background:Fossil fuels currently provide about 85% of the energy used by most of the developed world. Because of concerns over the limited supply of fossil fuels, as well as the detrimental environmental effects associated with their use, renewable energy resources such as solar… heating water in homes, factories and other commercial and institutional establishments. Internationally the market for solar water heaters has expanded significantly during the last decade. Salient Features of Solar Water Heating System Solar Hot Water System turns cold water into hot water …

Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date Solar water heating • Solar control – At least 2 thlhermal sensors (at the top of solar collector and the bottom of the solar tank) – The circulation pump turns on/off depending on temperature differential between both sensors

glazing / insulation, calculation, see Fig. 13 in appendix). Besides the basic collector parameters and characteristics the tool allows to enter also internal air pressure in the collector (for modeling both flat-plate atmospheric and evacuated collectors), slope of collector, type of heat transfer fluid (water, water- Solar Hot Water Savings Ideas. Replace a shower head for a water efficient one and Save 55% in water and associated heating costs. Install tap aerators and Save 75% in water and associated heating costs.. Solar Hot Water Calculator. Calculate your yearly hot water consumption and hot water costs.

DETAILED MODELING OF SOLAR FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS

basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

THE BASIC RADIANTEC SOLAR DOMESTIC WATER HEATER. Hot waterHot water for poolsfor pools Solar Water Heating (SWH - Solar Thermal) Hot water for domestic use (DHW) All courtesy of DOE/NREL. Solar Pool Heating Swimming pool water heatingSwimming pool water heating 80 - 85 degrees from May to October Standard Water Heaters Improved model: Same basic technology,, Thermal modelling and control of domestic hot water tank Page 0 of 94 The basic principle of solar energy based heating system is for a low flow solar water heating system to get the performance of three type of heat exchanger..

Design and Fabrication of Parabolic Trough Solar Water. glazing / insulation, calculation, see Fig. 13 in appendix). Besides the basic collector parameters and characteristics the tool allows to enter also internal air pressure in the collector (for modeling both flat-plate atmospheric and evacuated collectors), slope of collector, type of heat transfer fluid (water, water-, Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat (not electricity) which can then be used to heat water for showering, space heating, industrial processes or even solar cooling. Solar energy is the primary energy source for our planet as it is responsible for providing energy for plant growth ( photosythesis ) and.

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basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

Basic introduction to solar water heaters. bringing solar water heater technology to their community and entered into an (informal) agreement with CSA to have three SWH installed at the Pomo Nation by the end of September 2009. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk%3ASolar_water_heating This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service..

basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

  • Solar Water Heater Efficiency Analysis
  • Student-Designed Solar Water Heating System for McGill
  • THE BASIC RADIANTEC SOLAR DOMESTIC WATER HEATER
  • (PDF) Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its

  • a more detailed solar thermal water heating system for one of the Upper Residence buildings as an alternative to the current steam system used for heating water during the summer months. The design should be made primarily for 50% full occupancy in order … This method is widely used in designing both active and passive solar heating systems, especially in selecting the sizes and type of solar collectors that provide the hot water and heating loads. It designs solar water heating system for a family of six in Nsukka community using f-chart method and the annual

    solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. This work presents a reproducible parabolic trough solar water Solar Water: Heat it Up activity — Solar Water Heater Efficiency Analysis Worksheet To evaluate how well the solar hot water heater performed, we will calculate its EFFICIENCY: 2) So first, we’ll need to calculate how much ENERGY was put INTO to the system by finding the total POWER, P in, used by the heat lamps – our simulated sun. The P in,

    Design of Small Photovoltaic (PV) Solar -Powered Water Pump Systems Technical Note No. 28, October 2010 Page 1 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic (PV) panels are often used for agricultural operations, especially in remote areas or where the use of an alternative energy source is desired. Design and Construction of a Solar Water Heater Based on the Thermosyphon Principle Nosa Andrew Ogie,1 Ikponmwosa Oghogho,2 and Julius Jesumirewhe3 1Mechanical Engineering Department, Petroleum Training Institute, P.M.B. 20, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria

    Training Manual for Engineers on Solar PV System TECHNICAL REPORT В· JULY 2011 DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3156.9607 Fundamentals of solar photovoltaic technology 27 5.1 Basic Principles of Photo-Voltaic Effect 28 5.2 Solar Cells 33 Design aspects of water pumping schemes f) Load calculation g) Sizing of module/ array h) Sizing of storage battery This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service.

    glazing / insulation, calculation, see Fig. 13 in appendix). Besides the basic collector parameters and characteristics the tool allows to enter also internal air pressure in the collector (for modeling both flat-plate atmospheric and evacuated collectors), slope of collector, type of heat transfer fluid (water, water- Sizing Solar Hot Water Systems by Carl Bickford While most people are captivated by the high-tech nature of solar-electric (photovoltaic; PV) systems, in most cases, a solar hot water system will harvest more energy at a substantially lower cost. In fact, compared to PVs, solar domestic hot water (SDHW) collectors are more

    Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date – leave a space of approx. 100 mm. to the external side solar panels for the connections to the solar system. To calculate system’s load losses, see the here below diagram keeping in consideration what follows: pumping away from the hot water heater, towards the solar panel. Confirm the direction of pumping by observing the flow arrow

    In a typical solar water heater, water is heated by the solar thermal energy absorbed by the collectors. The hot water with lower density moves upwards and cold water with higher density moves down from the tank due to gravity head. A bank of collectors can be arranged in a series – parallel combination to get higher quantity of hot water. 1 OWNER’S MANUAL Introduction – The “Radiantec Basic Solar Domestic Water Heater” is a pre engineered “packaged” residential solar water heater that will provide abundant quantities of domestic hot water for a typical residential family.

    Solar Water Heating Water heating accounts for 4.5 Quads/year of 37.6 Quads/year total US building energy use. Of this, about 1% (0.05 Quads/year) is currently supplied by solar. 3% of buildings have solar One third of each building load by solar . Gas, 72% Oil, 0% Propane, 3% . Electric, 23% Solar, 2%. Figure by Andy Walker with data from Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date

    Solar Hot Water Savings Ideas. Replace a shower head for a water efficient one and Save 55% in water and associated heating costs. Install tap aerators and Save 75% in water and associated heating costs.. Solar Hot Water Calculator. Calculate your yearly hot water consumption and hot water costs. Training Manual for Engineers on Solar PV System TECHNICAL REPORT В· JULY 2011 DOI: 10.13140/2.1.3156.9607 Fundamentals of solar photovoltaic technology 27 5.1 Basic Principles of Photo-Voltaic Effect 28 5.2 Solar Cells 33 Design aspects of water pumping schemes f) Load calculation g) Sizing of module/ array h) Sizing of storage battery

    tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica-tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. This work presents a reproducible parabolic trough solar water

    Solar Hot Water Calculator Matthewb

    basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

    Student-Designed Solar Water Heating System for McGill. Solar water heating system is made up o f the solar collector, storage tank, heat transfer fluid, system controls, d epending o n the type of syste m and backup heater where necessary., Thermosiphon (or thermosyphon) is a method of passive heat exchange, based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical pump. Thermosiphoning is used for circulation of liquids and volatile gases in heating and cooling applications such as heat pumps, water heaters, boilers and furnaces..

    Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems

    Thermal Modeling and Efficiency of Solar Water. This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service., Modern active solar water systems have electronic controllers that offer a wide range of functionality, such as the modification of settings that control the system, interaction with a backup electric or gas-driven water heater, calculation and logging of the energy saved by solar water heating system, safety functions, remote access, and.

    Solar radiation is heating the water in the collector. Hot water in the collector has a lower specific density than the cold water in the storage tank and is ascending. Cold water from the storage tank has a higher specific density than the hot water in the collector. It is descending. No … heating water in homes, factories and other commercial and institutional establishments. Internationally the market for solar water heaters has expanded significantly during the last decade. Salient Features of Solar Water Heating System Solar Hot Water System turns cold water into hot water …

    Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Author: Pacific Gas & Electric Company Subject: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems Keywords: Solar Water Heating Commercial Systems, Pacific Gas & Electric Company, Agenda, Overview and Definition of Terms, Unique Commercial System Issues, Basic Finances, Site Analysis and Targeting Sites, Created Date

    Solar Hot Water Savings Ideas. Replace a shower head for a water efficient one and Save 55% in water and associated heating costs. Install tap aerators and Save 75% in water and associated heating costs.. Solar Hot Water Calculator. Calculate your yearly hot water consumption and hot water costs. Design of a Solar Water Heater Background:Fossil fuels currently provide about 85% of the energy used by most of the developed world. Because of concerns over the limited supply of fossil fuels, as well as the detrimental environmental effects associated with their use, renewable energy resources such as solar…

    – leave a space of approx. 100 mm. to the external side solar panels for the connections to the solar system. To calculate system’s load losses, see the here below diagram keeping in consideration what follows: pumping away from the hot water heater, towards the solar panel. Confirm the direction of pumping by observing the flow arrow Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Field Engineers Training course Prepared by The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi, India 3.8 Basic idea of a solar module, array and balance of system (BOS) 52 Solar Water Heater 117-128 7.1 Solar Thermal applications 117

    It's quite simple - You are interested in overall efficiency. Simply get the water temperature of the tank before and after a few hours of sunlight. Make sure to mix the water in the tank to get the average water temperature. Your pyranometer can This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service.

    Zig zag collector, manual on the construction of a solar water heater Page 5 1.3. Working principle of the solar hot water system When solar radiation heats the collector, the water inside will be heated as well. Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculation of Energy. Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculat The basic idea of wall heating is the well being of

    glazing / insulation, calculation, see Fig. 13 in appendix). Besides the basic collector parameters and characteristics the tool allows to enter also internal air pressure in the collector (for modeling both flat-plate atmospheric and evacuated collectors), slope of collector, type of heat transfer fluid (water, water- reducing water-heating costs and solar water heating systems with optical concentrating technologies as important entrants for providing needed bulk solar energy [2]. Parabolic trough power plants are the only types of solar thermal power plant technology with existing commercial operating systems.

    Modern active solar water systems have electronic controllers that offer a wide range of functionality, such as the modification of settings that control the system, interaction with a backup electric or gas-driven water heater, calculation and logging of the energy saved by solar water heating system, safety functions, remote access, and Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculation of Energy. Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculat The basic idea of wall heating is the well being of

    1 OWNER’S MANUAL Introduction – The “Radiantec Basic Solar Domestic Water Heater” is a pre engineered “packaged” residential solar water heater that will provide abundant quantities of domestic hot water for a typical residential family. tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica-tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer.

    Design of Solar Thermal Systems – Calculation Methods

    basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

    Design and Construction of a Solar Water Heater Based on. Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Windhoek related to different orientations and azimuth angles. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre. Calculated solar fraction ~ …, It's quite simple - You are interested in overall efficiency. Simply get the water temperature of the tank before and after a few hours of sunlight. Make sure to mix the water in the tank to get the average water temperature. Your pyranometer can.

    Design of Solar Thermal Systems – Calculation Methods

    basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

    Design and Construction of a Solar Water Heater Based on. glazing / insulation, calculation, see Fig. 13 in appendix). Besides the basic collector parameters and characteristics the tool allows to enter also internal air pressure in the collector (for modeling both flat-plate atmospheric and evacuated collectors), slope of collector, type of heat transfer fluid (water, water- https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrolysis_of_water This is a basic introduction to solar water heating, and provides a description of different types of systems and their pros and cons. Solar Water Heating Calculator. On the Wayback Machine: Full Details (pdf) An interesting thermosyphon solar water heater from New Zealand. Built in the 60's, it has a long track record of good service..

    basic calculations of solar water heater pdf

  • Design Considerations for Flat Plate Solar Water Heater System
  • Design Calculation and Heat Transfer Analysis of Heat Pipe
  • Basic introduction to solar water heaters

  • In a typical solar water heater, water is heated by the solar thermal energy absorbed by the collectors. The hot water with lower density moves upwards and cold water with higher density moves down from the tank due to gravity head. A bank of collectors can be arranged in a series – parallel combination to get higher quantity of hot water. bringing solar water heater technology to their community and entered into an (informal) agreement with CSA to have three SWH installed at the Pomo Nation by the end of September 2009.

    Variations of the annual solar yield in [kWh/m²·a] in Windhoek related to different orientations and azimuth angles. The calculations are based on a solar hot water system with 3m² collector area and a daily hot water consumption of 150 litre. Calculated solar fraction ~ … bringing solar water heater technology to their community and entered into an (informal) agreement with CSA to have three SWH installed at the Pomo Nation by the end of September 2009.

    tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica-tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. This work presents a reproducible parabolic trough solar water

    Solar Water: Heat it Up activity — Solar Water Heater Efficiency Analysis Worksheet To evaluate how well the solar hot water heater performed, we will calculate its EFFICIENCY: 2) So first, we’ll need to calculate how much ENERGY was put INTO to the system by finding the total POWER, P in, used by the heat lamps – our simulated sun. The P in, Solar Pump Calculation Sheet. solar power, solar water pumping, spreadsheet, water pumps. PDF calculation sheet for designing solar pumping systems. Download this sheet as a PDF file (92 to address the inequalities and injustices faced by millions of communities around the world who lack access to the basic resources required for a

    Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculation of Energy. Design and Testing of Solar Water Heaters with Its Calculat The basic idea of wall heating is the well being of solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. This work presents a reproducible parabolic trough solar water

    It's quite simple - You are interested in overall efficiency. Simply get the water temperature of the tank before and after a few hours of sunlight. Make sure to mix the water in the tank to get the average water temperature. Your pyranometer can – leave a space of approx. 100 mm. to the external side solar panels for the connections to the solar system. To calculate system’s load losses, see the here below diagram keeping in consideration what follows: pumping away from the hot water heater, towards the solar panel. Confirm the direction of pumping by observing the flow arrow

    tion on the components and types of solar water heaters currently available and the economic and environmental benefits of owning a system. Although the publica-tion does not provide information on building and installing your own system, it should help you discuss solar water heating systems intelligently with a solar equipment dealer. Thermal Modeling and Efficiency of Solar Water Distillation: Distillation is one of many processes that can be used for water purification and can use any heating source. Solar energy is low grade energy available. In this process, water is evaporated; using the energy of the The basic principles of solar water distillation are simple

    Thermal modelling and control of domestic hot water tank Page 0 of 94 The basic principle of solar energy based heating system is for a low flow solar water heating system to get the performance of three type of heat exchanger. a more detailed solar thermal water heating system for one of the Upper Residence buildings as an alternative to the current steam system used for heating water during the summer months. The design should be made primarily for 50% full occupancy in order …

    reducing water-heating costs and solar water heating systems with optical concentrating technologies as important entrants for providing needed bulk solar energy [2]. Parabolic trough power plants are the only types of solar thermal power plant technology with existing commercial operating systems. Solar Water Heating Water heating accounts for 4.5 Quads/year of 37.6 Quads/year total US building energy use. Of this, about 1% (0.05 Quads/year) is currently supplied by solar. 3% of buildings have solar One third of each building load by solar . Gas, 72% Oil, 0% Propane, 3% . Electric, 23% Solar, 2%. Figure by Andy Walker with data from

    reducing water-heating costs and solar water heating systems with optical concentrating technologies as important entrants for providing needed bulk solar energy [2]. Parabolic trough power plants are the only types of solar thermal power plant technology with existing commercial operating systems. Solar water heating improved the lives of homeowners, especially during the summer, because it eliminated the need to heat water on the stove. Firing up the stove to heat water warmed the entire house. In the winter, the solar water heater was drained to protect it from freezing, and homeowners resumed heating water on the stove.